A Much Obliged and Humble Servant: Clementina Rind’s Virginia Gazette

Sept. 22, 1774 Va GazetteIt was out of necessity that Clementina Rind became Virginia’s first woman newspaper publisher. After the death of her husband, William, in 1773, she had to keep his printing office going to support herself and her children.

Though little is known of Clementina’s early life, she and her husband arrived in Williamsburg from Maryland in late 1765 or early 1766 on the invitation of influential Virginians, including Thomas Jefferson, to start a newspaper to compete with the already established Virginia Gazette.

Obit Aug 26 1773

William’s Obituary, Virginia Gazette (Rind), August 26, 1773

The first issue of Rind’s Virginia Gazette was published May 16, 1766 with the motto, “Open to ALL PARTIES, but Influenced by NONE.”  For seven years Rind built a successful newspaper and printing business in Williamsburg, also winning the appointment of public printer to the colony. But in 1773, in the midst of his success, William died from what was described as a “tedious and painful illness” at age 39.

“As Clementina traversed the liminal space that Saturday morning after the funeral,” explains biographer Martha J. King, “she was not simply retreating to a private domestic life but also entering a public arena as a printer’s widow. Home and work were integrally tied. With living quarters and printing office under the same roof, it is likely that Clementina and her older children had worked alongside William Rind (Virginia Women: Their Lives and Times, 75).”

Faced with the death of her husband and the reality of supporting her family without him—a daunting prospect, for sure—she seized the opportunity and used her skills to carry on as printer of the Virginia Gazette. She continued William’s endeavor without any suspension in publication and in the same issue of the Gazette which printed William’s obituary,  Clementina is named as its printer.

Clementina printer Aug 26 1773

Publisher’s block

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Wendell Scott: Racing’s Minority of One

Scott Portrait“I was a race driver before I ever hit the track,” said Wendell Scott, the first African American to race NASCAR’s Grand National circuit,  in a 1982 interview with the Richmond Times Dispatch. As a moonshine runner, Wendell Scott expertly skirted police on the winding country roads surrounding his Danville, Virginia home. In his own words, Scott proclaimed himself “the greatest moonshine runner of them all, dusting off deputies in a 1946 Packard loaded with jars full of white lightnin’ on a run between Danville, Va., and Charlotte, N.C.”[i]

During prohibition, bootleggers started modifying their cars to go faster and handle better than the cars pursuing them. Though prohibition ended in 1933, the South’s love of moonshine persisted, and so the time-honored custom of outrunning the police to transport illicit goods for profit continued.  It was out of the necessity for a speedy vehicle that stock car racing was born. “The need to prove who had the fastest car,” Suzanne Wise explains, “led to weekend races at tracks carved out of pastures and corn fields.”[ii]

And it was via moonshine running that Scott found his way to becoming a bonafide stock car racer. In the 1950s, the Dixie Circuit, a competitor of NASCAR, in an attempt to attract larger audiences to its Danville events, came up with the idea of adding a black driver to its field of exclusively white competitors.  Local authorities in Danville were asked who the fastest black driver in town was. The immediate answer was a resounding “Wendell Scott,” followed up by something along the lines of, “We’ve been chasing him for years.”[iii]

Running moonshine provided Scott with the skill he needed as a driver, but his mechanic’s knowledge would prove invaluable during his race career as well. As a child, Scott helped … read more »

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Researching African American Newspapers

The Virginia Newspaper Project loves promoting the Virginia Chronicle newspaper database, but if you need to expand your research from Virginia to other U.S. states, then Chronicling America is the place to visit.

One example of the breadth and depth of the Chron Am database is the 55 African American newspapers from across the US, available online in Chronicling America, (Twitter, #ChronAm).

From the District of Columbia and Virginia to Utah, Idaho, and Louisiana, you can search a wide array of African American titles, with issues dating back to 1850 (The National Era) and up to 1922 (The Richmond Planet, The Appeal, and others).

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A Valentine’s Day Search Uncovers a West Virginia Love Grump: The Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, February 1856-1859

The Newspaper Project observes Valentine’s Day with a reminder of the search capacity within Virginia Chronicle and the felicities of discovery (spend a morning reading mid 19th century editorials and you’ll write like this too) therein.

From the 136 total titles digitized (that’s over 900,000 pages, a million is in sight. . .when we cross that threshold, be assured you’ll be advised) we chose a West Virginia Daily whose digitization resulted from our ongoing partnership with West Virginia University:WVA mastheadVirginia Chronicle’s pre-Civil War holdings start in 1852 and conclude seven years later, leaving seven Februarys to explore. If you select the word “Valentine” and narrow the search to the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, here’s how the results appear:search resultsMost of these hits are of proper names or modestly scaled advertisements typical of the time, like the following of 1856:WDI Feb 7, 1856Eight days later, the anti-Cupid appears:

WDI Feb. 15, 1856

Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Feb. 15, 1856

If there’s any hostility in the subterranean heart of Valentine’s Day, our writer is sensitive to it. Though this unsigned Wheeling editorialist is unroused to rancor in 1857, he resurfaces the following year. Can we be sure it’s the same writer? Oh, I think so:

WDI Feb. 6, 1858

Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Feb. 6, 1858

And again six days later:WDI Feb. 12, 1858

Reading this, one’s curiosity is powered to know more of the cultural context of Valentine’s Day in mid-19th century America. And also, what’s with this guy? Here he (I think we can assume this is not a Miss Angry Hearts) is again, twice more, February 1859:

WDI

Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Feb. 4, 1859

WDI

Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, Feb. 16, 1859

One tender Valentine to our anonymous writer might have prevented all of the above.… read more »

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Forged in Print: The Shenandoah Iron Works’ Riverside

masthead“Who hath despised the day of small things?” read the motto of the Riverside, a company newspaper published in Shenandoah Iron Works (SIW), located in Page County, Virginia. To be sure, even the small things were important in what was then a remote and rustic company town, including a simple, little newspaper printed monthly for the people who lived in and worked for Shenandoah Iron Works.

Rockingham Register Dec. 8, 1881

Excerpt from an article on the history of the Shenandoah Iron Works, from the Rockingham Register, Dec. 8, 1881, available digitally on access.newspaperarchive.com

Thanks to a cooperative partnership with the Huntington Library in Pasadena, California, the Library of Virginia has one issue of the very rare Riverside available in its Virginia Chronicle database, which now contains over 900,000 digitized newspaper pages.

Shenandoah Furnace was built in 1836, though what ultimately became the Shenandoah Iron Works was conceived after brothers Daniel and Henry Forrer purchased 34,483 acres of land from Samuel Gibbens in 1837. Soon after acquiring the land, the Brothers established a post office and named the town Shenandoah Iron Works.  Two more furnaces, Catherine and No. 2, as well as a forge, were added to the iron works where pig iron and tools were produced.

After the Civil War, the Forrer brothers, financially scarred by the devaluation of Confederate currency, sold the operation to a group of Pennsylvania industrialists. “The scale of its operations as measured in the production of pig iron, blooms, iron manufacturers and numbers of employees made Shenandoah one of the foremost industrial establishments in the northern and central Shenandoah Valley,” wrote Charles Ballard in his history of the SIW, “This industry and the community clustered around it evolved from an antebellum iron plantation into a postbellum company town.(The Shenandoah Iron Works, 1836-1907, p.1)”

SIW reached … read more »

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Happy New Year from the VNP!

Rooster 2The Virginia Newspaper Project hopes everyone had a happy New Year.

The end of January 2017 marks the beginning of the Year of the Rooster in the Chinese Zodiac. To celebrate, we searched Virginia Chronicle for rooster-related stories and images–below is a sampling of what we found. It includes how a rooster saved the day for one little boy.

CC 13 Oct 1909

Clarke Courier, October 13, 1909

CC 13 Oct 1909 (1)

Clarke Courier Rooster article, continued.

Daily Press 22 Dec. 1907

Daily Press, December 22, 1907

TD 25 Aug 1908

Times Dispatch, August 25, 1908

RP 7 April 1906

Richmond Planet, April 7, 1906

RP 11 June 1904

Richmond Planet, June 11, 1904

AG 22 July 1908

Alexandria Gazette, July 22, 1908

TD 9 Aug 1903

Times Dispatch, August 9, 1903

Tazewell Republican 25 Nov 1909

Tazewell Republican, November 25, 1909

RP Nov 7 1896 (1)

Richmond Planet, November 7, 1896

RP 16 Jan 1904

Richmond Planet, January 16, 1904

FH 22 Mar 1901

Farmville Herald, March 22, 1901

Appomattox and Buckingham Times 3 Oct 1906

Appomattox and Buckingham Times, October 3, 1906

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Electronic Newspaper Resources from the LVA

http://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/using_collections.asp#_research-NewspapersandMagazines2

http://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/using_collections.asp#_research-NewspapersandMagazines2

We often talk about Virginia Chronicle and Chronicling America here at the Newspaper Project, but the library subscribes to a number of other excellent online newspaper and periodical databases you can access from home with a Library of Virginia library card.

Among the numerous databases that can accessed from home with your library card are: American Periodicals, Daily Press Digital Microfilm (2010-present), Gale Databases, HarpWeek (1857-1912), JSTOR, LexisNexis Library Express, Newspaper Archive, American Periodicals, Newspaper Source Plus, Proquest Civil War Era (1840-1865), Norfolk Journal and Guide (1921-2003), Washington Post (1877-1996), Richmond Times Dispatch (1985-present), Richmond Times Dispatch Historical (1903-1986), US History and the Washington Post Digital Microfilm (2008-present).

Journal and Guide

http://search.proquest.com/hnpnorfolkjournalguide?accountid=44788 Dec. 5, 2016

To access any of these databases from home, go to the LVA Homepage, click on “Using the Collections,” click on “Databases and EBooks,” choose “Newspapers and Magazines” (though there are several other categories to choose from as well), click on a database you’d like to use (for example, Norfolk Journal and Guide, 1921-2003) and enter your Library of Virginia library card number when prompted to do so. Then you’re ready to go.

Try it out today–a world of information awaits!

 

 

 

 … read more »

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Now on Virginia Chronicle: The Smithfield Times

The Virginia Newspaper Project is delighted to announce the newest title, The Smithfield Times, available on Virginia Chronicle, the Library of Virginia’s online digital newspaper database. Smithfield TimesWith its first issue published in 1920, the Smithfield Times was known as the ”Official paper of Isle of Wight County” and the earliest issue on Virginia Chronicle, dated Jan. 28, 1928, is chock full of colorful local news.

Making the front page of this issue were the details of Mary Hatchell’s divorce, newsworthy for divorce’s near nonexistence at the time.”The sadness of the situation,” the Times reported, “was brought forcefully before the court when the 14 year old daughter of the couple, Jacqueline, bared unrelentlessly the conditions which had existed in their home.” On the front page of the same issue, an article outlining a bill to protect Smithfield Hams from what amounted to counterfeiting. The bill hoped to limit the “fattening territory” for hogs labeled “Smithfield” from Virginia and North Carolina to exclusively the peanut growing territory of Eastern Virginia.

With nearly a century of local news stories like the ones mentioned above, plus its birth and marriage announcements, social columns, editorials, obituaries, classifieds, cartoons, photographs, and advertisements, the now digitized Smithfield Times offers a rich and detailed look at the history, the people and the places of southeastern Virginia. Issues from 1928-1984 of the Times are currently accessible on Virginia Chronicle and 1985-2013 will be available soon.

And today, nearly 100 years after its inaugural issue, the Smithfield Times is still going strong, serving the Isle of Wight and Surry counties.

Bus schedule from Jan. 5, 1933 Smithfield Times.

ST Mar 4, 1943

Local advertisements from Mar. 4, 1943.

ST July 7 1955

Front page of the Smithfield Times, July 7, 1955.

Smithfiel Ad Aug 1960

Advertisement printed in the Smithfield Times August 1960.

ST 26 May 1982

Marriage and birth announcements from May 26, 1982

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A Thanksgiving Message From the Virginia Newspaper Project

projectFrom the Highland Recorder, November 28, 1947

Recroder 28 Nov 1947Stay tuned for more blog posts and look for new content on Virginia Chronicle as we approach the new year. . .… read more »

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Nat Turner Re-examined

Professor Patrick H. Breen, author of The Land Shall be Deluged in Blood: A New History of the Nat Turner Revolt, spoke at the Virginia Historical Society on Thursday, November 10, 2016.

Here is a video of the talk which includes the question and answer segment:

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