- To Be Sold: Hester Jane Carr’s Story


The Patriot (London), 7 November 1836.

This is the last in a series of four blogs related to the “To Be Sold” exhibit which opens on October 27 at the Library of Virginia. Each post will be based on court cases found in LVA’s Local Records collection and involving slave traders. These suits provide insight into the motivation of individuals to get into the slave trading business as well as details on how they carried out their operations. Even more remarkably, these records document stories of enslaved individuals purchased in Virginia and taken hundreds of miles away by sea and by land to be sold in the Deep South.  Today’s blog focuses on the experiences of slaves bought and sold by Richard R. Beasley and William H. Wood–experiences conveyed in Lunenburg County Chancery Cause, 1860-026, Christopher Wood, etc. vs. Executor of William H. Wood and Petersburg (Va.) Judgments 1837 May, Hester Jane Carr vs. Richard R. Beasley.

As shared in last week’s blog, Richard R. Beasley and William H. Wood formed a partnership to purchase slaves in Virginia and sell them for a profit in Mississippi and Louisiana. Following the death of Wood in 1845, Beasley was responsible for administering his estate. Wood’s heirs sued Beasley, accusing him of mismanaging the settlement. Both sides in the suit provided the court with a substantial amount of testimony and exhibits which … read more »

- Mug Shot Monday: Dr. Robert S. Fitzgerald, No. 38685


Photograph of Robert S. Fitzgerald, No. 38685, Records of the Virginia Penitentiary, Series II. Prisoner Records, Subseries B. Photographs, Box 32, Accession 41558, State Records Collection, Library of Virginia.

Welcome to Mug Shot Monday!  This is the latest entry in a series of posts highlighting inmate photographs in the records of the Virginia Penitentiary.  Dr. Robert S. Fitzgerald, the subject of this week’s post, was tried for performing abortions on three women between 1927 and 1937.  All three died as a result of Fitzgerald’s “illegal operation.”

Melva Victoria Royal was in trouble.  The unmarried 18-year-old North Carolinian King’s College student learned in the fall of 1927 that she was pregnant.  Melva wanted to terminate her pregnancy but didn’t know how.  A North Carolina physician provided James Royal, Melva’s father, with a name of someone who could perform the operation:  Dr. Robert S. Fitzgerald of Richmond, Virginia.  On 10 October, Melva and her father arrived in Richmond and made an appointment to see Dr. Fitzgerald.  After examining Melva, Dr. Fitzgerald, according to James Royal’s later court testimony, said he would not take the case for less than $200.  Royal obtained the money from a local bank, returned to Fitzgerald’s office at 6 p.m., and paid him.  Fitzgerald told James Royal take a walk for about half an hour.  When he returned, Melva was asleep.  At 8:30 p.m. the Royals  took a cab to their place of lodging.  Melva complained that she did not feel well.  At 9 a.m. on 11 October, Royal entered his … read more »

- To Be Sold: Beasley, Jones, and Wood- Virginia Slave Traders


Principal Slave Trading Routes, 1810-1850 ca. Provide in part by Calvin Schermerhorn and the University of Richmond Digital Scholarship Lab.

This is the third in a series of four blogs related to the “To Be Sold” exhibit which opens on October 27 at the Library of Virginia. Each post will be based on court cases found in LVA’s Local Records collection and involving slave traders. These suits provide insight into the motivation of individuals to get into the slave trading business, as well as details on how they carried out their operations. Even more remarkably, these records document stories of enslaved individuals purchased in Virginia and taken hundreds of miles away by sea and by land to be sold in the Deep South. The following narrative comes from Lunenburg County Chancery Cause 1860-026, Christopher Wood, etc. vs. Executor of William H. Wood.

From 1834 to 1845, Richard R. Beasley and William H. Wood were business partners “engaged in the trade of negroes [sic], buying them here [Virginia] & carrying them to the South for sale.” It was a partnership that was renewed every twelve months. Over the next decade, other individuals such as Robert R. Jones invested in the partnership but Wood and Beasley were the primary participants. The slave trade enterprise was funded by the personal capital of the partners, as well as loans from banks and private individuals. For example, in 1838, Beasley invested $5,800 and Wood $2,343 and they borrowed $6,905 from … read more »

- To Be Sold: Elizabeth’s Story


Slave Auction in the South, July 13, 1861, Harper's Weekly.

This is the second in a series of four blogs related to the “To Be Sold” exhibit which opens on October 27 at the Library of Virginia. Each post will be based on court cases found in LVA’s Local Records collection and involving slave traders. These suits provide insight into the motivation of individuals to get into the slave trading business as well as details on how they carried out their operations. Even more remarkably, these records document stories of enslaved individuals purchased in Virginia and taken hundreds of miles away by sea and by land to be sold in the Deep South. The following is the story of a slave named Elizabeth (also known as Lizzy or Betsey) found in Norfolk County Chancery Cause 1853-008, Thomas Williams vs. William N. Ivy, etc.

As told in last week’s blog post, Thomas Williams and William Ivy formed a partnership to purchase slaves in Virginia, transport them to Louisiana, hire them out to a local timber company for a year, and then sell them for a profit. Elizabeth was one of the slaves purchased by Williams and placed on a ship headed to Louisiana where Ivy was awaiting them. When Ivy received the first shipment of slaves, he was not happy to see the slave girl Elizabeth coming off the ship. He could not understand … read more »

- Mug Shot Monday: Benjamin Liverman, No. 18759


Photograph of Benjamin Liverman, #18759, Escaped Inmate Card, Records of the Virginia Penitentiary, Series II. Prisoner Records, Subseries B.  Photographs, Box 43, Accession 41558, State Records Collection, Library of Virginia.

Welcome to Mug Shot Monday!  This is the latest in a series of posts highlighting inmate photographs in the records of the Virginia Penitentiary.  Benjamin Liverman, the “Boy Bandit,” the subject of this week’s post, was first arrested at the age of ten.  By the age of 17, he had a lengthy criminal record.  His life of crime and the beginning of his reformation began in Norfolk in 1923 when he was convicted of robbery and sentenced to 53 years in the penitentiary.

Benjamin Liverman was born Donatto Siravo on 28 February 1905 in Fall River, Massachusetts.  The son of Italian immigrants, Siravo did not have a good home life.  According to the Massachusetts Department of Corrections, Alfred Siravo, Donatto’s father, worked as a weaver in Fall River.  He was “quick tempered and very emotional and is blamed for much of the [couple's] marital troubles.”  In September 1915, Siravo, only ten years old, began his life of crime when he was arrested in Fall River for trespassing.  Over the next six years, Siravo, still a minor, was arrested nine times and served time in the Lyman School for Boys and the Shirley Industrial School.  He escaped the Shirley Industrial School on 9 January 1922 and made his way to Norfolk, Virginia, by November 1922.  Over the next two months, Siravo, using the alias … read more »

- To Be Sold: The Williams and Ivy Slave Trade Scheme


Bill of lading for William White and William Shepherd,Thomas Williams v. William N. Ivy, etc., Norfolk County Chancery Cause, 1853-008, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.

This is the first in a series of four blog posts related to the “To Be Sold” exhibit which opens on October 27 at the Library of Virginia. Each post will be based on court cases found in LVA’s Local Records collection and involving slave traders. These suits provide insight into the motivation of individuals to get into the slave trading business, as well as details on how they carried out their operations. Even more remarkably, these records document stories of enslaved individuals purchased in Virginia and taken hundreds of miles away by sea and by land to be sold in the Deep South. The following narrative comes from Norfolk County Chancery Cause 1853-008, Thomas Williams vs. William N. Ivy, etc.

In 1838, Thomas Williams and William N. Ivy formed a partnership “for the purchase of slaves to be sent to Louisiana.” Their plan was to first hire out the slaves for about a year to local businesses, then to divide between them the wages earned by the slaves and a free African American they employed as an apprentice. Once the hiring-out period ended, the slaves would be sold, or “disposed of” as Williams called it, for a profit.  To finance their venture, Williams and Ivy received a loan of $5,000 from the Exchange Bank of Virginia at Norfolk.  Ivy left for Louisiana to … read more »

- New Images Added to the Lost Records Digital Collection


Plat of Bell's Cold Comfort Estate, 1840, in Buckingham County found in Nelson County Chancery Causes, 1841-071, The Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia.

Additional document images from counties or incorporated cities classified as “Lost Records Localities” have been added to the Lost Records Localities Digital Collection available on Virginia Memory.  The bulk of the additions are copies of wills, deeds, and estate records of members of the Bell family from Buckingham County; these items were used as exhibits in the Nelson County Chancery Cause 1841-071, William Scruggs and wife, etc., versus Rebecca Branch, etc. The wills of Frederick Cabell, Dougald Ferguson, and William Woods–all recorded in Buckingham County and all exhibits in other Nelson County chancery suits–have been added as well. One document from Buckingham County was found in City of Lynchburg court records. It is an apprenticeship indenture dated 1812, made between Clough T. Amos and Betsy Scott, a free African American. Amos was to instruct Scott’s son Wilson “in the art and mystery of a waterman in navigating [the] James river above the falls at the city of Richmond.”

Documents from other Lost Records Localities used as exhibits in Middlesex County chancery suits have been added as well. They include the will of Edward Waller, recorded in Gloucester County; the wills of Patsy Wiatt and James Christian, recorded in King and Queen County; a deed between Henry Cooke and wife to William Taylor, recorded in King and Queen County; and the will and estate … read more »

- A “Passport for Any-Where”


Cover of G.B. Lamar Jr.'s so-called PASSPORT FOR ANY-WHERE (G.B. Lamar Jr. Papers, 1859-1867. Civil War 150 Legacy Project. Permission to publish or reproduce is required.)

Recently I stumbled upon one of the more interestingly-worded government documents that I have ever encountered. Housed in the papers of Confederate soldier G.B. Lamar, Jr., of Georgia, was a leather-bound “passport” dated 1867. But this wasn’t just any ole’ passport–embossed in gold letters on the book’s cover were the words:

Hand Book of Loyalty.  
Passport for Any-Where.

Being a holder of a passport myself, and thereby glancingly familiar with the process of attainment and the general requirements of such, I couldn’t believe that such fanciful language could accompany something heretofore seen as banal and utterly devoid of hyperbole or flights of fancy. But–here it was! A passport to anywhere!

One might argue this is just a statement of the obvious, for a United States passport is, clearly, a document allowing one to travel “anywhere.” Yet the language trumpeted on Lamar’s leather cover hints at possibility and adventure in a way that my prosaically blue passport vehemently does not.

To open the book is to be confronted with yet more extravagant jargon, for it announces these intentions:

To produce the most
Soothing Feelings of Patriotism
In the Shortest Space of Time.—Works like Magic.

It turns out this was not a passport per se, but a wryly humorous book for former Confederates who had, perhaps reluctantly and out of pure necessity, sworn their allegiance to the … read more »

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- Kaine Email Project @ LVA – Technology Edition

This is the seventh in a series of posts spotlighting recently released email from Governor Tim Kaine’s administration.  These posts are not meant to be comprehensive but to encourage further exploration in the Kaine administration records (electronic and paper).


Secretary of Technology Aneesh Chopra (2006-2009)

The Library of Virginia is pleased to announce the release of an additional 15,381 emails from the administration of Governor Timothy M. Kaine (2006-2010).  This batch comprises email from individuals in Kaine’s Office of the Secretary of Technology.  Since January 2014, the Library has made 130,644  emails from the Kaine administration freely available online.

Aneesh Chopra held the position of secretary of technology for the vast majority of the Kaine administration.  In this role, Chopra focused on a number of different areas.  The following are but a few examples of the kinds of things that Chopra worked on during his time as secretary.  For the complete picture, you will need to jump into the collection and start digging.

The Virginia Information Technologies Agency (VITA)-Northrup Grumman partnership was created during the administration of Governor Mark Warner (2002-2006) but it came fully into being during the administration of Governor Kaine.  As the secretary of technology, Chopra had to deal with the issues surrounding the full implementation of the plan and smooth over the concerns of state agencies and local government.

As the state’s expert in all … read more »

- Mug Shot Monday: Ernest Harper, No. 18903


Photograph of Ernest Harper, #18903, Escaped Inmate Card, Records of the Virginia Penitentiary, Series II. Prisoner Records, Subseries B. Photographs, Box 43, Accession 41558, State Records Collection, Library of Virginia.

Welcome to Mug Shot Monday!  This is the latest entry in a series of posts highlighting inmate photographs in the records of the Virginia Penitentiary.  Ernest Harper, the subject of this week’s post, brutally murdered an unrequited love interest and was sentenced to 20 years in the penitentiary.  Eighteen months into his sentence, Harper escaped in dramatic fashion and was never recaptured.


Photograph of Mrs. Alice Moore, Norfolk Journal and Guide, 22 November 1922, page one.

On Thursday morning, 2 November 1922, Ernest Harper, armed with a revolver, burst into the room of Mrs. Alice Moore in Norfolk.  He shot Moore seven times, emptying his weapon; she was able to run down the stairs but died in the doorway.  Harper was quickly captured.  His motive was jealousy.  Harper had fallen in love with Moore, who was estranged from her husband, Luther Moore.  Alice rejected Harper’s advances and the Moores had recently reconciled.  After learning the news, Harper shot Moore in a jealous rage.  In May 1923, Harper was convicted of first degree murder and sentenced to 20 years in the Virginia Penitentiary.


Photograph of Frank McGee, #16897, Escaped Inmate Card, Records of the Virginia Penitentiary, Series II. Prisoner Records, Subseries B. Photographs, Box 42, Accession 41558, State Records Collection, Library of Virginia.

Upon Harper’s arrival at the Penitentiary on 23 May 1923, he was placed in the cell of Frank McGee, who was serving a 15-year sentence for housebreaking.  The two cell mates planned one of the most sensational and well-planned escapes in penitentiary history.  “Eighteen inches of steel-re-enforced concrete, a three-quarters of an inch steel plate, … read more »