Tag Archives: elections

- This will really flip your Whig!

 

Detail of the cartoon letterhead for the 1844 presidential campaign for Whig Party nominee Henry Clay. (Madison County Chancery Cause 1919-001, Adms. of Thomas Shirley vs. Heirs of Thomas Shirley and Zachariah Shirley vs. Adms. of Thomas Shirley.)

We love our letterhead here in the processing sections of the Library of Virginia. One can come across such interesting, varied, and colorful examples while processing Governor’s papers, personal letters, or court records. We’ve shared a few examples of our finds in previous blog postings and have happily learned that you love them, too! As a result, we continue to save examples for future Out of the Box installments. It was with that thought that I made a Xerox of the following letterhead, assuming that I’d add it to our growing file to share at a later date. I showed it to a colleague, and she said, “Google those lines and see what you find.” Sure enough, there was more to this letterhead than met the eye.

The image and line refer to a song written during the 1844 presidential campaign for Whig Party nominee Henry Clay. The illustration shows a raccoon holding a document (or stick) labeled “Constitution,” and rolling a large ball after a scurrying fox. Considered to be the first modern national campaign, the 1844 contest pitted the Whig, Clay, against Democrat James K. Polk. This being Clay’s third presidential race, the Democrats pejoratively dubbed him “the same old coon” in reference to his perennial candidacy. In response, the Whigs decided to embrace the moniker, even using the raccoon image on their … read more »

- “Woke Up Election Day”: The Virginia Electoral College


Governor Tim Kaine and First Lady Anne Holton with Virginia's electors, 15 December 2008, Office of the Governor.

On 6 November 2012, Barack Obama and Joe Biden were re-elected President and Vice President of the United States.  Or were they?  As we all learned in our high school government class, the President and Vice President are officially elected by the Electoral College.  Under this system, established by Article II and the 12th Amendment to the United States Constitution, voters in each state on Election Day are actually choosing a candidate’s slate of electors to serve in the Electoral College.  Under Chapter 1 of Title 3, United States Code (62 Stat. 672, as amended), the Electoral College meets and votes on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December.  The 2012 Electoral College will meet on 17 December to cast Virginia’s 13 electoral votes for Obama and Biden.

The Library of Virginia has a variety of records in several collections (Secretary of the Commonwealth, Office of the Governor, Virginia General Assembly, etc.)  related to the Virginia Electoral College from 1789 to 2008.    Today, copies of the Certificate of Ascertainment and Certificate of Vote are transferred to the Library by the Virginia State Board of Elections.  The Certificate of Ascertainment lists the names of the electors appointed and the number of votes cast for each person during the general election.  The Certificate of Vote lists the totals for the Electoral College.  Additional records … read more »

- #election1860


Abraham Lincoln campaign banner for the 1860 presidential election. (Imaged used courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Collection.)

On 13 November 1860, J.S. Moore of Indiana wrote a letter to his Virginia relative Doctor Thomas Moore. Much of the letter has to do with health matters and the vibrant Indiana economy. The “Indiana Moore” then turned his attention to the recent 1860 presidential election. He provides “Virginia Moore” his thoughts on Abraham Lincoln, the Republican Party, the Democratic Party, and who was responsible for the secession crisis pervading the nation at the time.

“I suppose Lincoln is elected President and report says the result has created a consternation in the South and an effort is being made to adopt a plan for secession. It does appear to me that it is folly and madness on their part to attempt resistance at all events until Lincoln or his party is guilty of an overt act that would justify such a procedure if justifiable it could be. I know that Mr. Lincoln holds today principles that you and I use to battle for under the leadership of Henry Clay.

And I do say when the Republican Party is assailed the assault is not made on their principles but a misrepresentation of those principles and I hold the Democratic Party responsible for the ill feeling engendered both North and South. They persist in saying here at home that the Republican Party proposes to make war on

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- Don’t Block the Vote

 



In honor of the upcoming Election Day, today’s post presents a record that illustrates the struggles that some Virginians experienced while attempting to exercise the right to vote guaranteed them by the Fifteenth Amendment.  Today’s ease of voter registration belies the fact that this has not always been so in Virginia for everyone.  The Commonwealth’s Constitution of 1902 was a post-Reconstruction attempt to whittle down the voter rolls by making property ownership, poll taxes, and literacy tests prerequisites to voter registration, thereby eliminating large numbers of African Americans and poor whites.  Section 19 of Article II specifically mentions the so-called “understanding clause” –  the requirement that a person applying to register must be able to read or have read to him a section of the Constitution and explain its meaning to the registrar.  It seems fairly clear that this understanding clause was not applied to every person registering to vote.


Voter refusal of Snowden Robinson, 15 September 1902.

Warren County kept a register of voters  titled “Refused Colored Applicants,” 1902-1903 (Barcode 1205724) consisting of dated entries by name of African American men attempting to register to vote, along with their ages, dates of birth, occupations, and how long they had lived in the state, county, and precinct. Also recorded is the section of the Virginia constitution that was given to the men for explanation (although not which article) and what their answers were. … read more »

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