Virginia Memory, Library of Virginia
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Protest: Rise up and Demand Our Rights

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  • Lynched, Notice in Newspaper, <em>The Richmond Planet,</em> 4 January 1890, Original Newspaper, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia., LVA
    Richmond Planet Lynching Article
  • Virginia, Governor (1954–1958: Stanley), Executive Papers, 1954–1958, Accession 25184, State Government Records Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia., LVA
    Robert Leon Bacon Letter
  • Background Map: 1961 Freedom Rides. [New York]: Associated Press Newsfeature, [1962]. Printed map and text. Geography and Map Division. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., LOC
    Freedom Rides Map
  • Danville (Virginia) Corporation Court, 1963 Civil Rights Case Files, 1963–1973, Accession 38099, Local Government Records Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia., LVA
    Civil Rights Protests in Danville
  • [110th] H.Res.431 : Recognizing the 40th anniversary of Loving v. Virginia legalizing interracial marriage within the United States. Sponsor: Representative Tammy Baldwin (introduced 5/23/2007)., LOC
    Loving v. Commonwealth
  • Virginia Civil Rights Memorial Photographs, Library of Virginia, Richmond Virginia., LVA
    Virginia Civil Rights Memorial
  • <em> Richmond Planet,</em> April 30, 1904, Boxed Newspapers, Library of Virginia, Richmond, Virginia., LVA
    Richmond Streetcar Boycott
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« Return to The Fourteenth Amendment

Protest:
Rise up and Demand Our Rights

Lawsuits intended to reduce inequalities between white and black schools or to overturn the separate but equal doctrine and require desegregation of public schools occupied the center of attention during the 1950s and into the 1960s, but both before and after that campaign African Americans protested and actively sought to change other public policies and behaviors associated with racial segregation and discrimination.

Parents, students, and teachers protested the poor quality of public schools before the Brown v. Board of Education decision, but after the Supreme Court reversed the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson, African Americans mounted an increasingly vigorous and widespread campaign against racial segregation and discrimination generally.

People Featured in This Unit:

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  • Dred Scott (ca. 1799–1858)
  • Margaret Douglass (fl. 1845–1854)
  • George Major Cook (1860–1930)
  • Walter Ashby Plecker (1861–1947)
  • John Mitchell Jr. (1863–1929)
  • Aline Black (1906–1974)
  • Oliver White Hill (1907–2007)
  • J. Lindsay Almond Jr. (1898–1986)
  • Spottswood William Robinson III (1916–1998)
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