Flags as symbols
A speedy union with the other slave states
Recruiting for Virginia
"At the Service of the State"
"Hold themselves ready"
Three news items, April 24, 1861
"Thanking God that I have a son to offer"
"Pay Roll of Slaves Employed by the Commonwealth"
"Affairs at Norfolk and Portsmouth"
"Now on the verge of a bloody civil war"
"Willing to act as well as to vote"
"You must choose sides"
"100 at least, in each county"
"A Voice from North Western Virginia"
"If we should be attacked"
"The spirit of determined resistance"
"The ladies of Petersburg"
"The Hancock Union Guards"
"The ladies home guard"
"It is my purpose to remain in the Army"
"Every thing here in the greatest confusion"
"I owe Virginia little; my country much."
Robert E. Lee
What a woman can do for her country
"Military Enthusiasm Among the Ladies"
"We will all be free pretty soon"
"They could take Lewisburg"
"Patriotic and accomplished daughters"
July 4, 1861
"Proud spirited" ladies
"Lincolns message is war enough"
"We are now short of Cash"
"No more licorice"
"Federal troops marched into Hampton"
"Our North Western border"
"The heroic conduct of these ladies"
"You are subject to all these hardships"
"We have commenced drilling"
"A capital fortification"
Sanguinary battle at Bull Run
"We have at great cost won a victory at Manassas"
In Memory of William E. Woodward
"The Yankees Repulsed and Driven From the Field"
To call out the militia in West Virginia
Civil War Begins
Robert E. Lee took command of Virginia's defense forces at a session of the Virginia Convention in the Capitol in Richmond on April 23, 1861. The convention organized the state's defenses and prepared for war. It ratified the Provisional Constitution of the Confederate States on April 25, invited the Confederate government to make Richmond its national capital on April 27, and elected Virginia's representatives to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America on April 29. President Jefferson Davis arrived to a triumphal reception on May 29. The decision to make Richmond the capital of the Confederacy was as important as the decision to secede because it made Virginia the principal and most bloody battleground of the war. The Provisional Congress of the Confederate States of America met for the first time in the Capitol on July 20, 1861, one day before the first great land battle of the war in which Confederate forces routed Union forces at Manassas Junction, in northeastern Virginia.
Virginians Prepare for War
Early in April 1861, even before the convention in Richmond had voted to secede, Virginia militia companies from many counties east of the mountains offered their services to the governor.
Virginia Soldiers Make Hard Decisions
United States Army officers from Virginia had to choose whether to remain in service to their nation or to fight with their native state.
Virginia Civilians Make Hard Decisions
Decisions about war and peace, more dramatic than decisions about most political questions, involved all members of society and all members of every family.
Civil War Begins
Confederate and Union forces clash in Virginia beginning in June 1861.