12 U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BULLETIN, SEPTEMBER 17, 1918 NEW TRAINING AND DILUTION SERVICE IS ESTABLISHED TO SPEED UP WAR PRODUCTION; TRAINS AND PLACES WORKERS. After survey of the general industrial situation and consideration of existing facilities for training and of the supply of and demand for skilled workers, the following plan has been drafted as a guide to an outline of organization of the Training and Dilution Service of the Department of Labor. Charles T. Clayton, formerly Assistant Director General of the United States Employment Service is director of this new service. The Training and Dilution Service is established to stimulate production of war supplies by organizing, training to increase the competency of wage earners, and to point out ways for rendering the existing supply of highly skilled workers sufficient through dilution. Incidental to such stimulation is the protection of wage earners against exploitation through unnecessary dilution of labor; of guarding established trade customs and standards against needless relaxation; and where they have been relaxed, of providing means for restoring just standards when the emergency is past. Service to Be Given. The Service will assist all departments of the Government. It will help any industry to secure more and better trained workers. , when such help will benefit war production. It will suggest improvements in training methods relating to processes, occupation and trades; will propose to factories improvements in organization to increase output through better working conditions; will draft training-department plans for manufacturers and organize and conduct such departments at their request either directly or in cooperation with the Federal Board for Vocational Education and State and municipal school authorities. Methods of Procedure. The work hitherto done by the Section on Industrial Training for the War Emergency of the Labor Committee, Advisory Commission, Council for National Defense, has been taken over by this Service and is being carried on and extended. Connection is being perfected with the several "production" departments of the Government (Ordinance, Quartermaster, Signal, medical and Chemical Supply Corps, Airplane Service, Navy Department., etc.) to secure prompt advice when a war contractor is in special difficulties for skilled labor which training may relieve. Superintendents of Training are being appointed and will be assigned to districts. The districting adopted by the Ordinance Department seems most suitable. Whenever a contractor applies for help the superintendent will be instructed to visit the plant. If an investigation of conditions is necessary and the Investigation and Inspection Service will be called in; if questions of policy regarding working conditions or employment of women in an industry arise, the Working Conditions or Women in Industry Services will be consulted. To Form Training Centers. If the conclusion is favorable the superintendent will organize a training department for the employers, selecting competent trainers from his regular force or suggesting competent persons from lists which the Service is compiling. Where training for such instructors is necessary they will be sent to a training center, if such center can be provided, or to establishments already organized, for instruction. After setting up such training departments the superintendent will visit them frequently to keep up their standards and weekly detailed reports of operations will be required. The Washington office will maintain experts to prepare and revise training plans and to observe and pass on improvements ti training which, through the superintendents, will be used to constantly raise the training methods in factories. Wherever possible connection will be made with local school authorities in cooperation with the Federal Board for Vocational Education. Departments Cooperating. In dilution, a section upon "Needs and Supply" will study sources of new labor and its applicability to industries, cooperating with the Women in Industry Service and other policy services of the department. This section will draw upon the following organizations, among others, for information. 1. Ordnance Department district chiefs. 2. War Industries Board regional advisiors. 3. United States Employment Service. 4.District organizers, American Federation of Labor. 5. Building trades and metal trades council, American Federation of Labor. 6. Priority Committee, War Industries Board. A section upon"Industrial Hygiene" is contemplated, to inquire into the conditions and suitability of particular factories, for dilution. Where information obtained indicates that assistance should be given by this Service, its facilities will be brought to the attention of the employers, both directly and through the Government department with which the employer has a contract. If on examination it seems that a definite percentage of dilution should be undertaken by the employers, it is believed that a clear statement of the facts and reasons and a suggestion of sources of labor and method of accomplishing dilution will secure affirmative action. Until this method has been given a fair trial, the English plant of requiring employers by a contract provision to install definite percentages of dilution is deprecated, because necessary percentages will vary with localities and seasons. Vocational Board to Assist. This Government has two organizations designed to secure industrial training, the Federal Board for Vocational Education and the Training and Dilution Service. The board disburses a considerable sum upon a half-and-half plan for the salaries of vocational instructors employed by the States. The plan of distribution is perhaps is insufficient to meet the present emergency, but it has great advantages in securing local understanding of industrial training. Such training may be given with board assistane. either in trade school, vestibule schools or even on factory floors, provided the minimum training periods are observed. Whether manufacturers will cooperate, the Service will induce them to call upon their local school authorities, and will arrange with the board to simultaneously take the matter up with local and State school authorities through the boards's State agents, to expedite establishment of training upon approved plans. Supervise Instruction. For purposes of industrial training the Service and the board may well be considered as primary and secondary training institutions. Where because of the emergency, plants feel compelled to limit training to mere processes, preparations for which requires less than the 19 eight-hours days' minimum prescribed by the Smith-Hughes Act for part-time training supported by boards; funds, the Service will provide plans, organize training departments and supervise them; but always will insist that persons given such limited training be accorded further opportunity for training at first occasion; will adapt all training at first occasion; will adapt all training schemes, when possible, to articulation with the more extended training of the Federal board. The general purpose will be to have all training made part of a comprehensive plan for industrial education, with such partial training as can not be avoided because of necessity for immediate production, organized to fit into the general plans. Aids Production Bureaus. The Navy, Emergency Fleet Corporation, Ordinance Department, Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, Airplane Division, Medical Corps, Chemical Supply Division, and various smaller units have been called "production" departments of the Government for was material. Contractors with each (frequently the same person) are alike in need of skilled labor and all should be accorded this Service's assistance. Arrangements are being made to secure periodic information from each of these Government organizations regarding contractors' needs. As this information comes in, it will be indexed and communication opened with the concern. The informing department will be asked to advise the concern to use the Service, and to assist in having the subject given a fair trial. Women's Interest Protected. Advice of the Women in Industry Service on policies regarding the employment of women in an industry and the Working Conditions Service upon industrial standards will be sought; and it is presumed that these services will be willing to make special studies in industries and instruct this Service regarding policies as needed. Employment Service. The facilities of the Employment Service and of its women's division in obtaining information as to needs and supply of labor, of its field offices in securing labor for the factories to send to the training departments, and of its State and local boards in getting an understanding U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BULLETIN, SEPTEMBER 17, 1918 13 of the subject home to employers and workers, are needed by this Service. In return, the Service will be able to assist the Employment Service in meeting the demand for skilled workers, which makes up about 70 per cent of the total labor calls of employers. The especial cooperation of the Employment Service may be given in supplying employers with labor which may be hired before training. This seems to this service the practical treatment of the problem of supporting workers while being trained for a new occupation. Train Men in Factories. Under the auspices of the Storage Committee of the Council of National Defense, now part of the War Industries Board, courses in employment management have been given during the past few months by several universities. the first having been given by the University of Rochester. Ten courses have so far been given to about 200 persons. The Employment Service has assisted in financing the courses and the Director of Training and Dilution has acted with the committee in general charge. This work should be increased' employment departments should be established in every factory having training,. Pupils should come to the training director through competent employment examination, and after training be placed at work and followed up by a trained employment manager. This is so important that the Training and Dilution Service feel that the courses should be tied closely to this Service if a way to finance them can be found. Meantime, the Service will urge establishment of employment departments upon all contractors with whom it comes into relations. YOUNG WOMEN OUTSHOCKED MEN, SAYS FARGO FARMER Newspaper reports from Fargo, N. Dak. indicated that the patriotic community cooperative spirit is largely influencing the farm labor situation in that section. The employees of Black's Department Store of Fargo, have organized a "Shocking Club" composed of about 50 young men and women. The members of this club have been giving a very practical demonstration of what real patriotism is by harvesting wheat on the farms in the vicinity. Mr. Bennett, a leading farmer of the section on whose farm the club harvested 35 acres of wheat, writes to the local paper: "I made an inspection of the shocks to-day and I was agreeably surprised at the excellence of the work done. While they are all great workers, there are one or two young women in the party who can do more work than any man I have ever had on the place." Federal Director Lindley H. Patten has been encouraging this community cooperation and writes that the spirit which pervades the Fargo district is general over the whole State of North Dakota.
"Boys have relieved the situation on the farms," reports the United States Employment Service office at Rockford, Ill. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES HOLD MEETING THIS WEEK. Because of the importance of the nation's public employment office system to the mobilization of American's industrial army, the sixth annual meeting of the American Association of Public Employment Offices, to be held from Thursday to Saturday, inclusive, of this week at the Hotel Hollenden, Cleveland, Ohio, will be of unusual interest. National and State officials of the United States Employment Service will take a leading part in the proceedings. Following s the program: THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 19, 1918. Morning Session Address by the president, Charles B. Barnes, State Superintendent for New York, United States Employment Service. Address of welcome, Hon, Harry L. Davis, mayor of Cleveland. "Employment Offices in the State of Ohio," Hon. James M. Cox, governor of Ohio. "How to Organize a System of Employment Offices Within a State." Fred C. Croxton, Federal Director for Ohio, United States Employment Service. Discussion by William M. Leiseron, Toledo; Eswald Petter, Federal Director for Wisconsin consin United States Employment Service; Miss Mary Ellicott Arnold, New York City; Louis T. Bryant, Federal Director for New Jersey, United States Employment Service, Joseph L. Spitz, Newark, N.J. "What Cards are Absolutely Essential in the Record System of an Employment Office."Topical discussion. Afternoon Session. "The Supervision of Employment Offices," Wilbur F. Maxwell, Columbus Ohio. Discussion led by Hosea f. Moyer, Columbus, Ohio. "Wording and Arrangement of Record Cards." C.B. Sexton, Superintendent of Bureaus, State of California, San Francisco. Discussion lead by Miss Louise C. Odencrantz, supervisor, Women's Division, United States Employment Service, New York City. "How to Organize and Conduct a Clearing House for a State System of Employment Offices," C.H. Mayhew, Assistant Federal Director for Ohio, United States Employment Service. Discussion by Sanford H.E. Freund, Director of Clearance Division, United States Employment service; Miss Mary Le Dame, Morris L. Ernst, and Leslie E. Woodcock, New York City. Reports by States on Work of the United States Employment Service, By the Federal directors of employment for the States. :number and Kind of a Personnel for an Employment Office in a City of 50,999." Topical discussion. FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 1918 Morning Session "Courses in Employment Management," Capt. Boyd Fisher, Washington, D.C. "Employment Policies in Handling Foreign Labor," Don D. Lescohier, Department of Political Economy University of Wisconsin. "Shall Placement and Registration Work in an Employment Office be Separated?" Topical discussion. "Why a Daily Report and What Sha;; it Show?" Topical discussion. Afternoon Session. "The United States Employment Service," Hon John B. Densmore, Director General, United States Employment Service. "Interviewing and Selecting," Mark M. Jones, Thomas A Edison (Inc.) Orange, N.J. Arousing Enthusiasm on Loyalty," S,R. Rectanus, director of employment, American Rolling Mill Co. Middletown, Ohio. "Special Problems of Employment Work," Ralph G. Wells, assistant chief employment manager E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Co., Wilmington, Del.
Women Make Good as Power Plant Workers; Get Same Pay as Men
Morris Blen, Acting Director of the United States Reclamation Service, Department of the Interior, has sent to the BULLETIN the following report from Barry Dibble, project manager of the Minidoka Irrigation project, in Idaho: "On August 12 we began an experiment which promises very satisfactory results. We have had considerable difficulty in obtaining satisfactory men or boys for operators at the power house, partly because of lack of quarters and partly because men of the type we need there are scarce. The work in connection with these positions is very light and of such character there is no reason why women are not physically able to handle it. We have therefore employed three girls and are breaking them in for the position of others. We are paying the women the same rates as we have the men. To Extend Experiment. "We are planning to carry out the experiment still further, and are organizing a survey party of girls to put on the topographic work on the north side pumping unit. Since our new plan has been noised about we are receiving a great many applications from girls, and those whom we have employed are taking hold in an excellent shape, so that I believe the results will be entirely
EXAMPLE OF LABOR 'STEALING' One Plant Take Trainload of Men Supplied for Another. A trainload of workers came to a new War Department construction job on the seaboard from a western point. The Employment Service brought them and the War Department paid the bills. The job is vitally important and must be rushed to the limit. Like many other jobs now being done by the Government, the lives of many of our men and the time when our full strength can be employed in the war depend in part upon it. But bright and early next morning the agent of a firm which has a Government contract and a plant a few miles away came over and offered the men 3 cents an hour advance and took the whole trainload away.
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. Morning Session
"Women's Division, United States Employment Service," Mrs. Margarette Neale, Assistant to Director General for Women's Work. United States Employment Service "A Juvenile Division in the United States Employment Services," Miss Virginia MacMakin, supervisor of Juvenile Division, United States Employment Service, New York City. Discussion by Miss Anne Davis, Chicago; Mrs. Helen t. Woolley, Cincinnati; and Miss Bertha M. Stevens, New York City. "How to Register and Renew Applications for Employment.: Topical discussion.. "The Community Labor Board,: Dean George W. Kirchwey, special agent, United States Employment Service, New York City. Afternoon Session. Business Meeting and Election of Officers. "Women Division, United States Employment Service,: Mrs. Margarette Neate, Assistant to Director