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(left side) Copyright, 1910, by The North American Review Publishing Company

(right side) Woman And Democracy By Borden Parker Bowne, Ll.D.

By democracy I mean the Government of the people, for the people and by the people, and its aim to secure the largest possible life and liberty for each compatible with the highest good of all. By the people, I mean all persons of ordinary intelligence and character, both men and women, who make up the community. The true democratic doctrine is that all such persons are equally free and independent, equally entitled to the free exercise of their individual rights and equally entitled to a voice in making the laws they are required to obey. But this ideal could not be secured at once or at the start. We have been slowly working toward it and have not fully reached it yet. Man began with a period of blind instinct and brute fore and slowly groped his way into properly human conditions. It was a long and tedious process to build our race into humanity and civilization. In the beginning, when man had to learn everything, the one thing above all others essential was to have some kind of social uniformity that could be depended on. As Bagehot says, "The first condition of even the crudest society was the formation of a cake of custom." It did not matter much what it was, provided it was fixed. In that primitive state individuals had no rights and could have none until the foundations of society were laid. Social co-operation had to be learned to make any effective society possible, and in the crude condition of all things human this had to be reached and maintained by sheer force. The first lessons in civilization were given with a club, and so far as appears they could not well have been given otherwise. Thought, reflection, criticism, ideals, were to come later, after the cake of custom had been formed. But when this work was done, then began the higher work