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10 U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BULLETIN, SEPTEMBER 17, 1918 ADJUSTMENT BETWEEN SCHOOL AND INDUSTRY MUST BE MADE (continued from page (9) work and education is merely supplementary. On the other hand, there are part-time plans in which school work forms the major basis and industrial service the minor. For example, the Central High School of Newark has effected very satisfactory arrangements with a number of firms which employ pupils afternoons and on Saturdays. The cooperative school i generally known as the "Cincinnati plan," because it was developed in that city. The time of the boys is divided between study and work; in fact, the pupils are paired to alternate, one boy being in school one week while the other is at work. A number of eastern cities have taken quite kindly to the cooperative plan. Vocational Guidance B. Placement and Supervision. \While the Department of Labor can share to only a limited extent in the actual carrying out of training, it can, however, fully direct the second part of the program, placement and supervision. We noted above the great need of systematic endeavor in placement work because of the unsatisfactory ways in which boys secure jobs. True, vocational guidance has sought to remedy these conditions, but such efforts have been limited in their effectiveness because they have been directed usually by the schools, which have lacked the necessary knowledge of industrial conditions and still lack control over factory placements Now, for the first time, there exists an organization which possesses the required personnel and powers---the United States Employment Service. Boys' Examiner in Local Offices. As the number of its branches increases, there should be place in each a junior labor examiner with the sole duty of handling applicants of Reserve age. This officer should be mindful not so much to seek a record number of placements as to urge boys back to school when deemed necessary. Supervision, including investigation of employment and "fol;ow-up" or oversight, is also the function of this vocational counselor. He is expected to hold himself.responsible for both the educational and the industrial welfare of the boys who come under his charge. He should, of course, merit the confidence and cooperation of the local educational authorities. This thing will readily give, for they in turn will receive effective assistance in stemming the heavy drift of boys from school to industry, as described above. Will Unite Service and School. Thus, in solving a critical war-time problem, the Boys' Working Reserve will effect a close relationship between the school and the Employment Service. The school has advanced to the dignified position it holds as one of the supreme factors in our civilization. The Employment Service, now in its infancy, still struggling toward full consciousness, should, in the not distant future attain a place as important as our public-school system among democratic American institutions. Necessity Teaching Non-War Employers To Release Men Without Losing Efficiency By Leon Stein Mr. Stein, the author of the following article, is the employment and advertising manager of S.Stein & Co., woolen manufacturers, of New York. His suggestions for the release of employees from non-war plants should carry especial weight from the fact that they are being put into actual practice in the Stein plant, which holds no Government contracts. The increase of production in the essential industries and the reduction of demand for labor in nonessential industries constitute a natural cause for a readjustment of working forces. It is with this readjustment that the United States Employment Service is concerned. At the beginning of the war, the lack of materials and decrease of business was considered by many employers as a temporary condition only; therefore, any radical changes in their organizations did not win approval. When the United States entered the conflict, some employers were disturbed by the loss of a small percentage of their employees whom they replaced with others. Frequently this was accomplished by offering higher wages than was customary. In some instances the compensation was more liberal than was being paid to employees with a much longer period of service to their credit. When the wages of the new employees became known the others were naturally dissatisfied and applied for other positions where abnormal wages were offered. Increase in Turnover. such circumstances had a tendency to increase the labor turnover and also entailed additional expenses in connection with hiring and training the employees. These constant changes meant less efficiency and a smaller production per person. With further demands for more soldiers, sailors, and industrial workers for the essential industries additional vacancies were brought about, some of which it was impossible to fill satisfactorily When the employers were confronted by such conditions, necessity proved that the respective businesses could be conducted with fewer employees, thereby enabling the paying of higher salaries to those employed, who in turn could more comfortably meet the higher cost of living. It is almost impossible to accurately guage how small a number of employees is actually required until you have gradually reduced your organization through economy, necessity, or patriotism. No Surplus Employees. Most employers and employees can materially increase their abilities if they realize the importance of their so doing. In industrial America there is an urgent demand that employers share honors with the officers who are on the firing line in France. Under the present conditions no patriotic employer will retain unnecessary employees when there exists such a vast shortage of labor that is so urgently required in the essential industries. When an employee or group of employees, is about to leave your employment to take a permanent position in an [a]ssentional industry, do no become alarmed or attempt to dissuade them, but furnish them with encouragement,. Convince them of the importance of their future efforts. Before employing others to replace those leaving, it is suggested that you endeavor to make transfers or enlarge the duties of others, so that you do not unnecessarily take an individual from the labor market unless you are [f]orced to In many large and small concerns there are surplus employees, so to speak, who are retained on the pay rolls for sentimental reasons or because the management has not made a careful study of the existing conditions and does not realize the full capabilities of the employees. Greater efficiency is often the result of a decreased number of employees. Many people will naturally wast time periodically if they are given a day in which to perform work that should consume but a fraction of that period. Employers will greatly assist their country and themselves if they will make a careful survey of their organizations and adjust the duties of each individual so that 10 persons are not employed where 9 or even 8 would be sufficient. Utilize Employment Service. It is not advisable to immediately dismiss a large portion of an organization at a stated time, as this may tend to disrupt your working force and contribute to a possible demoralization of labor conditions. It is preferable that you frankly explain your patriotic desire in the matter so that the employees will not be prompted to assume an unjust attitude toward you or employers in general. You could then prepare a list of the employees not required, submit the names and full particulars to the United States Employment Service office in your city, and in this manner your employees would enter their new positions imbued with a proper spirit. Another advantageous plan would be to have the employees call at the Employment Office and file their applications, with the understanding that they will leave their present positions promptly upon call from the Government's war labor placing agency. When you retain surplus employees you are wasting capital that could be invested in Liberty Bonds, subscribed to the Red Cross or other worthy organizations. When you release surplus employees you are furnishing the industrial army with labor, the shortage of which if unrelieved will materially lengthen the war.

Bryan County, Okla. is solidly behind the Boy's Working Reserve in Oklahoma. Leading lawyers and bankers of the county have take the stump in the interest of the Reserve, while newspapers, ministers, educators, and others are doing all in their power to forward the work of Reserve officials. U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BUREAU, SEPTEMBER 17, 1918 11 CONFERENCE ON BOY POWER IN WASHINGTON THIS WEEK (Concluded from page 3) 9:30 o'clock A.M. Nathan A. Smyth, Assistant Director General, U.S. Employment Service, presiding. (1)"Adequate Farm Labor Necessary to Winning the War." the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture or his representative (2)"Central Farm Training Camps," L.H. Dennis, Assistant Director U.S.Boys' Working Reserve, Pennsylvania Division.. (3) "The Farm-Craft Lessons," Dean Eugene Davenport, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Editor of the Lessons. (4) "National Board for Vocational Education and the United States Boys' Working Reserve," Dr. C.A. Prosser, Director National Board for Vocational Education. (5) "Industrial Unit of the U.S. Boys' Working Reserve," Jesse B. Davis, Chief Industrial Placement Section U.S. Boys' Working Reserve. 2 o'clock P>M> II. W Wells, Associate Director U.S. Boys's Working Reserve, presiding (1_ "War Labor Policies," Felix Frankfurter, Chairman National War Labor Policies Board. (2) "The Farm as the Second Line of Industrial Defense." Oliver Wilson, Master of National Grange. (3) :The Manufacturing and Industrial Education," William Wirt, Superintendent of Schools, Gary, Ind. (4) Sectional Meeting for Federal State Directors and their staffs to be addressed by the National Director William E. Hall, concerning Education, Organization, Supervision, and Welfare, Industrial Placement, and Publicity. 6:30 P.M. .Dinner at Hotel Ebbitt, Fourteenth and F. Streets NW, to which all accredited delegates to the conference and guests are invited. Moving pictures of the activities of the U.S. Boys' Working Reserve from the various parts of the field will be shown. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21 9.30 o'clock A.M. William .E. Hall, National Director U.S. Boys; Working Reserve, presiding.

(1) "The Emergency in Education," Dr. George S. Strayer, President National Educational Association.

(2) "The Boy and his Education in the War Program," Hon P.P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education. (3) "National Policies of Education for Boys of the Reserve,: H.W. Wells, Associate Director, U.S. Boys' Working Reserve. (4) Discussion: "Education." Conducted by Mr. Wells. (5) "How to get it over," George Creel, Chairman Committee on Public Information. (6) Closing Remarks, bu William E. Hall, National Director, U. S. Boys' Working Reserve.