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12 U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE BULLETIN, SEPTEMBER 17, 1918 NEW TRAINING AND DILUTION SERVICE IS ESTABLISHED TO SPEED UP WAR PRODUCTION; TRAINS AND PLACES WORKERS. After survey of the general industrial situation and consideration of existing facilities for training and of the supply of and demand for skilled workers, the following plan has been drafted as a guide to an outline of organization of the Training and Dilution Service of the Department of Labor. Charles T. Clayton, formerly Assistant Director General of the United States Employment Service is director of this new service. The Training and Dilution Service is established to stimulate production of war supplies by organizing, training to increase the competency of wage earners, and to point out ways for rendering the existing supply of highly skilled workers sufficient through dilution. Incidental to such stimulation is the protection of wage earners against exploitation through unnecessary dilution of labor; of guarding established trade customs and standards against needless relaxation; and where they have been relaxed, of providing means for restoring just standards when the emergency is past. Service to Be Given. The Service will assist all departments of the Government. It will help any industry to secure more and better trained workers. , when such help will benefit war production. It will suggest improvements in training methods relating to processes, occupation and trades; will propose to factories improvements in organization to increase output through better working conditions; will draft training-department plans for manufacturers and organize and conduct such departments at their request either directly or in cooperation with the Federal Board for Vocational Education and State and municipal school authorities. Methods of Procedure. The work hitherto done by the Section on Industrial Training for the War Emergency of the Labor Committee, Advisory Commission, Council for National Defense, has been taken over by this Service and is being carried on and extended. Connection is being perfected with the several "production" departments of the Government (Ordinance, Quartermaster, Signal, medical and Chemical Supply Corps, Airplane Service, Navy Department., etc.) to secure prompt advice when a war contractor is in special difficulties for skilled labor which training may relieve. Superintendents of Training are being appointed and will be assigned to districts. The districting adopted by the Ordinance Department seems most suitable. Whenever a contractor applies for help the superintendent will be instructed to visit the plant. If an investigation of conditions is necessary and the Investigation and Inspection Service will be called in; if questions of policy regarding working conditions or employment of women in an industry arise, the Working Conditions or Women in Industry Services will be consulted. To Form Training Centers. If the conclusion is favorable the superintendent will organize a training department for the employers, selecting competent trainers from his regular force or suggesting competent persons from lists which the Service is compiling. Where training for such instructors is necessary they will be sent to a training center, if such center can be provided, or to establishments already organized, for instruction. After setting up such training departments the superintendent will visit them frequently to keep up their standards and weekly detailed reports of operations will be required. The Washington office will maintain experts to prepare and revise training plans and to observe and pass on improvements ti training which, through the superintendents, will be used to constantly raise the training methods in factories. Wherever possible connection will be made with local school authorities in cooperation with the Federal Board for Vocational Education. Departments Cooperating. In dilution, a section upon "Needs and Supply" will study sources of new labor and its applicability to industries, cooperating with the Women in Industry Service and other policy services of the department. This section will draw upon the following organizations, among others, for information. 1. Ordnance Department district chiefs. 2. War Industries Board regional advisors. 3. United States Employment Service. 4.District organizers, American Federation of Labor. 5. Building trades and metal trades council, American Federation of Labor. 6. Priority Committee, War Industries Board. A section upon"Industrial Hygiene" is contemplated, to inquire into the conditions and suitability of particular factories, for dilution. Where information obtained indicates that assistance should be given by this Service, its facilities will be brought to the attention of the employers, both directly and through the Government department with which the employer has a contract. If on examination it seems that a definite percentage of dilution should be undertaken by the employers, it is believed that a clear statement of the facts and reasons and a suggestion of sources of labor and method of accomplishing dilution will secure affirmative action. Until this method has been given a fair trial, the English plant of requiring employers by a contract provision to install definite percentages of dilution is deprecated, because necessary percentages will vary with localities and seasons. Vocational Board to Assist. This Government has two organizations designed to secure industrial training, the Federal Board for Vocational Education and the Training and Dilution Service. The board disburses a considerable sum upon a half-and-half plan for the salaries of vocational instructors employed by the States. The plan of distribution is perhaps is insufficient to meet the present emergency, but it has great advantages in securing local understanding of industrial training. Such training may be given with board assistane. either in trade school, vestibule schools or even on factory floors, provided the minimum training periods are observed. Whether manufacturers will cooperate, the Service will induce them to call upon their local school authorities, and will arrange with the board to simultaneously take the matter up with local and State school authorities through the boards's State agents, to expedite establishment of training upon approved plans. Supervise Instruction. For purposes of industrial training the Service and the board may well be considered as primary and secondary training institutions. Where because of the emergency, plants feel compelled to limit training to mere processes, preparations for which requires less than the 19 eight-hours days' minimum prescribed by the Smith-Hughes Act for part-time training supported by boards; funds, the Service will provide plans, organize training departments and supervise them; but always will insist that persons given such limited training be accorded further opportunity for training at first occasion; will adapt all training at first occasion; will adapt all training schemes, when possible, to articulation with the more extended training of the Federal board. The general purpose will be to have all training made part of a comprehensive plan for industrial education, with such partial training as can not be avoided because of necessity for immediate production, organized to fit into the general plans. Aids Production Bureaus. The Navy, Emergency Fleet Corporation, Ordinance Department, Quartermaster Corps, Signal Corps, Airplane Division, Medical Corps, Chemical Supply Division, and various smaller units have been called "production" departments of the Government for was material. Contractors with each (frequently the same person) are alike in need of skilled labor and all should be accorded this Service's assistance. Arrangements are being made to secure periodic information from each of these Government organizations regarding contractors' needs. As this information comes in, it will be indexed and communication opened with the concern. The informing department will be asked to advise the concern to use the Service, and to assist in having the subject given a fair trial. Women's Interest Protected. Advice of the Women in Industry Service on policies regarding the employment of women in an industry and the Working Conditions Service upon industrial standards will be sought; and it is presumed that these services will be willing to make special studies in industries and instruct this Service regarding policies as needed. Employment Service. The facilities of the Employment Service and of its women's division in obtaining information as to needs and supply of labor, of its field offices in securing labor for the factories to send to the training departments, and of its State and local boards in getting an understanding