TEN THE BAYONET: CAMP LEE, VA., FRIDAY, MAY 10, 1918 after, and he may make as many others as he desires. 31.-Q. What is done with a will after the testator dies? A. The will is opened by the person having custody of it; or if it is found among the testator's effects, it is opened by his relatives or close friends; and is then presented to the court to be admitted to probate and record. It is a crime to secrete or destroy the will of another person. 32.-Q. What is meant by admitting a will to probate? A. Admitting a will to probate means duly and legally proving and establishing it as a the last will and testament of the testator. 33-Q. What are the duties of an executor? A. It is the duty of an executor; first, to collect all the assets and debts due the testator; second, to pay the court costs for administering the estate; third, to pay the debts that the testator owed at the time of his death; fourth, to carry out the provisions of the will; and lastly, to render to the court an account of all funds that he has received and has disbursed. 34-Q. May a testator avoid the payment of his debts by disposing of all his property in a will in some other way? A. No. Whether the testator provides for the payment of his debts by will or not, his debts are paid before the property goes to the beneficiary. After his debts are paid, the balance of his estate will be disposed of according to the will. 35.-Q. Should a person prepare his own will? A. A person may prepare his own will, as no particular form of words are required, as long as the language clearly and plainly expresses the testator's intention. But, in order to prevent forgery and other frauds in the execution of a will, the law requires certain strict formalities, so that it is always better for a person to obtain legal assistance or advice in executing his will. You can secure such advice at the office of the Division Judge Advocate. All such matters are, of course, treated confidentially. 36.-Q. Give a short form of a will. A. I, John Doe, do hereby declare this to be my last will and testament. I give, devise and bequeath all my property real, personal, or mixed, that I may own at the time of my death, or in which I may have any interest, legal or equitable, to my beloved mother, Mary Doe. I do nominate, constitute and appoint my mother, Mary Does, as the executrix of this my last will and testament; and do require that she need give no bond for the faithful performance of the trust reposed in her. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal at Camp Lee, VA., this 15th day of March, 1918. (Seal) JOHN DOE. Signed, sealed, published and declared by the above named testator. John Doe, as and for his last will and testament in the presence of us, who, at his request and in his presence and in the presence of each other, have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto. JOHN SMITH Rank, organization and home address. WILLIAM JONES, Rank, organization and home address. Robert Black, Rank, organization and home address. Another Form of Will. This is the last will of John Smith, of Cincinnati, Ohio, a private in Company A, of the 750th Infantry. I revoke all other wills. I give to my wife, Henrietta Smith, $1,000 and the farm on which we live. I give to each of my children $150. The rest of my property I give to my wife. I name my wife and William Smith executors of this will, without surety. Signed and sealed this 10th day of April 1918, at Paris, France. (Seal) JOHN SMITH. Sined and sealed by John Smith in our presence, and by him declared to be his last will this 10th day of April, 1918, in testimony whereof at his request and in his presence and in the presence of each other we do now sign as witnesses the day and year aforesaid. WILLIAM H. CLAY, Sergeant, Company A, 750th Infantry, 186 Vine Street. Cincinnati, Ohio. SAMUEL JONES Corporal, Company A, 750th Infantry, 18 Brown Street, Dayton, Ohio. HENRY S. WASHINGTON. Private Company A, 750th Infantry, 99 Front Street, Newport, Ky. Section IX. REWARDS OF SERVICE. BY LIEUT.-COL. I. L. HUNT, Division Judge Advocate. Q. & A. 1. In what they consist....... 1 2. "Pull" and promotion....... 2-3 3. Special honors, decorations and insignia............. 4 4. Medal of honor............. 5 5. Certificate of merit......... 6 6. Distinguished service cross. . 7 7. Distinguished service medal. . 8 8. War service chevrons...... 9 9. Wound chevrons............ 10 10. Evidence of service-Kinds of discharges............. 11-14 11. Value of an honorable discharge ................... 15 1.-Q. What are the usual rewards of service? A. To receive pay provided by law according to his rank; to receive the allowances for clothing and rations: to free medicine and hospital service when sick or wounded; to extra pay when earned for such special services as special qualification in target practice; to promotion to the grade of non-commissioned officer and commissioned officer when deserved; to receive such honors, decorations and insignia as are authorized for especially meritorious service; and to receive an honorable discharge on the completion of military service. The pay proper as distinguished from allowances of a soldier is necessarily small in comparison with the earning power of men who have a trade in civil life, but under a system of obligatory military service, soldiers do not serve primarily for pay, but exclusively because they are selected by the government to perform a duty to the State. This duty, of course, cannot be compensated in money, therefore all governments reduce the pay of their soldiers to the very lowest limits. The American soldier at the present time is the highest paid soldier in the world, as it is contemplated that he shall himself help with his government pay to sustain in a measure those dependent upon him, whereas other countries usually pay the soldier only sufficient for his immediate needs, and make separate provision for family allowances. 2-Q. Is "pull" required to gain promotion in the army? A. Nothing could be further from the truth than the idea that political or personal influence has anything to do with the winning of promotion in the service. Every company commander is constantly on the watch for men who have the capacity for leaders, and those who develop such capacity soon advance to the grades of corporal and sergeant. The whole army depends upon its platoon and squad leaders. No men are entitled to so much respect as the company noncommissioned officers, for they have the difficult task of not only leading men, but being compelled to live more or less with them on terms of intimacy. It requires natural leadership to succeed under such circumstances. Most men win promotion by virtue of their superior intelligence, knowledge of their work, and that indefinable something which makes some men naturally dominate over their fellowmen. 3.-Q. But is it not true that political influence is necessary in order to secure a commission? A. We have entered wars heretofore in which qualifications for officers were determined by the amount of friends they had in high places. Such conditions have passed away, however, and it is unthinkable that they should ever return. The man who attempts to lead other men in battle without having been himself subjected to the tests of discipline and leadership is a willful murderer, and the War Department announced with the closing of the second series of training camps that with the single exception of men who had some previous military service, all men who entered future training camps must come from the ranks. Nothing which the War Department has done since the war commenced gave greater satisfaction to the officers of the army than this ruling, and it is hoped that nothing will ever arise to require any modification of it. The winning of a commission in the present period of our rapid expansion is not an overdifficult thing, but a man who gets his first commission should remember that it is merely a commission as an officer, and he has yet to demonstrate whether or not he is fit to lead and command men in the capacity which such a commission confers upon him. 4.-Q. What special honors, decorations and insignia may be earned by soldiers? A. The certificate of merit and the medal of honor have long been the two means of rewarding especially meritorious service. In addition, soldiers are issued campaign medals and ribbons to indicate service in special campaigns. To these have recently been added the distinguished service cross, the distinguished service medal, war service chevrons and wound chevrons. 5.-Q. Under what circumstances is the medal of honor awarded? A. It is awarded to officers and enlisted men who perform in action deeds of most distinguished personal bravery or self-sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty so conspicuous as clearly to distinguish them for gallantry and intrepidity above their comrades, involving risk of life or the performance or more than ordinarily hazardous service, and the omission of which would not justly subject the person to censure as for shortcoming or failure in the performance of his duty. This is the highest military reward in our army, and is the most difficult military decoration in the world to earn. 6.-Q. When may a certificate of merit be awarded? A. Certificates of merit can only be earned by soldiers, and they are granted whenever a soldier has distinguished himself in the service. They do not necessarily have to be earned in action against an enemy. Soldiers holding certificates of merit are paid $2 per month extra pay. 7.-Q. When is the distinguished service cross awarded? A. It may be granted to any person who distinguishes himself by extra ordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United States under circumstances which do not justify the award of the medal of honor. 8.-Q. When may the distinguished service medal be awarded? A. It may be awarded to any person who has distinguished himself by exceptional meritorious service to the government in a duty of great responsibility in time of war or in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United States. 9.-Q. Who is entitled to wear war service chevrons? A. Any officer or soldier who has served six months in the zone of the advance in the present European war. An additional chevron will be granted for each six months of similar service thereafter. The war service chevron is all gold, and is worn on the lower half of the left sleeve of all uniform coats except fatigue coats. 10.-Q. When may wound chevrons be worn? A. The wound chevron is a gold chevron of a pattern identical with that of the war service chevron, and will be worn on the lower half of the right sleeve of all uniform coats except fatigue coats by each officer or soldier who is wounded in action with the enemy to the extent which necessitates treatment by a medical officer. An additional chevron is authorized for each additional wound, but not more than one chevron will be worn for two or more wounds received at the same time. Disablement by gas necessitating treatment by a medical officer is considered the same as a wound for the purpose of granting a wound chevron. 11.-Q. What evidence of service does a soldier receive from the government when he is discharged? A. He is given a discharge certificate, of which there are three classes, namely, those for honorable discharge, those for discharge and those for dishonorable discharge. 12.-Q. When is the blank for honorable discharge used? A. When the soldier's conduct has been such as to warrant his re-entering the service, and his service has been honorable and faithful. 13.-Q. When is the blank for dishonorable discharge used? A. When dishonorable discharge is ordered by sentence of a general court-martial or a military commission. 14.-Q. When is the blank for discharge used? A. In all cases except where the discharge is honorable or dishonorable. Such cases most frequently arise where the soldier is discharged for fraudulent enlistment or for physical disability caused by his own misconduct.