following the convention system, was what is called the period of the legalized delegate convention plan. for many years the process made very little progress, but in the late eighties, in '89 and '90, came the Australian ballot movement. the Australian ballot movement spread like wildfire over the united states, and within a few years practically every state had adopted it. in other words, here was a formula, a scheme, a method of protecting the purity of elections, and after the Australian ballot system was adopted for regular elections, then it came to be the tendency to adopt the same system for party elections, and what happened toward the end of the century was, as in the case of the Illinois law of '98 and the new York and boston laws of about the same time, that they clamped down upon the party convention practically all the rules of the Australian ballot system. in other words, they made the legal safeguards of the primary and regular election the same to all the intents and purposes. those legal safeguards are that there shall be publicity in regard to the time and place and purposes. those legal safeguards are that there shall be publicity in regard to the time and place and purpose of the election, that there shall be regular polling places engaged by the state, that there shall be sworn judges and clerks appointed by the government, that there shall be printed ballots furnished by the government.