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with choice language. Father Walsh reminded the speaker that the time was not appropriate for any language of that sort, considering that the next minute the speaker might be in Kingdom Come. Silence fell over the group and we said no more but listened to the steady rain of shells. We were comparatively safe in the dugout except from a direct hit and of that there was only one chance in a thousand. Previous to entering the army, I had made artillery ammunition, 3 inch, 4.7 inch and six inch, in the Frankford Arsenal in Philadelphia and knew approximately the range that was being used. From the report the shells seemed to be of the three inch variety, high explosive, and by timing the report of the gun and the explosion of each shell as it fell outside, I made out the German artillery to be about one mile distant. High explosive shells explode only by striking some object and do comparatively little damage, their chief merit being in the moral effect produced. Shrapnel, on the other hand, is fitted with a time fuse to go off at from five to twenty-two seconds and is used primarily against advancing infantry. It has little moral effect but does tremendous damage. Each shrapnel contains one hundred and fifty bullets, of the size of grape-shot. The shells falling outside were high explosive as I knew when the first one fell. Shrapnel is set with the fuse at twenty two seconds when the range is about three miles, which is about the maximum for field artillery. The shells were reaching us about five seconds after the report of the gun was heard. As the German artillery was beyond the German infantry, this marked the German infantry to be about a half mile away and the American infantry somewhat nearer. This bombardment continued for about one hour and then ceased. We returned to the inn and went back to sleep. The infantry contin- -53-