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legalization process began. This was a caucus of voters to choose delegates to the state convention,-and to the county convention. There were eligible probably five or six hundred voters. The caucus was held in the basement of a flat building, one of those offices placed in the basement, that would accom-modate perhaps twenty or thirty people. Well, two or three hundred people came. Then who was to control the caucus? It depended on who got there first. Many arrived and found that the building was filled, though the door was not open. People had gone into the first flat and had gone down into the basement that way. Then two or three hundred stood on the outside, and after many menacing words between those who were in and those who were out, the outs threatened that if they were not allowed to vote they would have another caucus of their own across the street or somewhere near there. For fear of that they were finally allowed to vote. But how did they vote? There was a window there, and they were allowed to go along in a file and put their ballots in the window; there was a waste basket there, and there was a ballot box so placed that you could not see what happened to the ballots, but it was generally understood that if you voted a certain kind of ballot it went into the waste basket, otherwise it went into the ballot box. And the count would indicate that.

History of the Direct Primary

The direct primary movement which overlapped the movement for the legalizing of the convention really began in the 'seventies in Pennsylvania. Commonly it is said that the primary nomination, the direct primary, began in Crawford County, from which it was called for many years the Crawford County plan, or sometimes the Lancaster, Pennsylvania, county plan. A similar plan was used in Kansas, or in the western states. In Illinois we used the system in Ogle County, from which it came to be called the Ogle County plan. And where I lived in Iowa they used the direct primary by voluntary rule for many years in the county, just by agreement among themselves. So that for twenty-five or thirty years, or even longer than that, the direct primary was employed in local elections, primarily for county purposes, and in a considerable part of the west and central states, a considerable number of them. In the south also a direct primary was applied earlier than the north for another reason: in the south they wished to have a white man's primary, and they made the primary the election, but in the primary they put down qualifications that did not apply to the regular election. In the primary nobody could vote except a white man, and so they held their primaries in that way, not by law but by voluntary rule of the party.